how to treat periodontal disease

Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and surrounding structures. It is a prevalent oral health issue that can lead to tooth loss if left untreated. This article aims to provide comprehensive information on periodontal disease, including its causes, symptoms, treatments, and preventive measures. We will also address frequently asked questions (FAQs) to clarify common concerns regarding this condition.

Understanding Periodontal Disease

What is Periodontal Disease?

Periodontal disease refers to a chronic infection that affects the gums and other structures supporting the teeth. It typically starts with inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) and progresses to periodontitis if left untreated.

Causes of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease is primarily caused by the bacteria present in dental plaque. Poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, genetics, hormonal changes, certain medications, and systemic diseases can also contribute to its development.

Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

Common signs of periodontal disease include red, swollen, or bleeding gums, bad breath, tooth sensitivity, receding gums, and loose teeth. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek professional dental care.

Diagnosing Periodontal Disease

Dental Examination

During a dental examination, a dentist will carefully assess your oral health, inspecting for signs of gum inflammation, plaque buildup, and visible damage to the gums and teeth.

Periodontal Probing and X-rays

Periodontal probing involves measuring the depth of the spaces between your gums and teeth using a small probe instrument. X-rays may also be taken to evaluate the severity of the disease and assess any bone loss.

Treating Periodontal Disease

Non-surgical Treatment Options

– Scaling and Root Planing: This deep cleaning procedure removes plaque and tartar from the tooth surfaces and below the gumline. Root planing smooths the tooth roots to discourage bacterial growth.
– Antibiotics: In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to control the bacterial infection and promote healing.

Surgical Treatment Options

– Flap Surgery: This surgical procedure involves lifting the gums to clean the infected areas and then repositioning them for better gum attachment.
– Soft Tissue Grafts: During grafting, tissues from other areas of the mouth are used to replace gum tissue lost due to periodontal disease.
– Bone Grafts: Bone grafting aims to regenerate lost bone tissue and restore the integrity of the affected area.

Managing Periodontal Disease

Maintaining Good Oral Hygiene

Brushing twice a day, flossing regularly, and using antibacterial mouthwash helps remove plaque and prevent further progression of periodontal disease.

Regular Dental Check-ups

Regular dental visits are essential for early detection and monitoring of periodontal disease. Your dentist can develop a personalized treatment plan and provide professional cleanings.

Lifestyle Changes

– Quitting Smoking: Smoking is a significant risk factor for periodontal disease, as it impairs blood flow and weakens the immune system.
– Stress Management: Stress can worsen periodontal disease symptoms. Practices such as exercise, meditation, and therapy can help manage stress levels effectively.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

1: Can periodontal disease be cured?
Yes, with proper treatment and adherence to good oral hygiene practices, periodontal disease can be controlled and managed effectively. However, the damage caused by the disease may not be fully reversible.

2: Is it possible to reverse the effects of periodontal disease?
While it may not be possible to fully reverse the effects of periodontal disease, timely intervention and appropriate treatment can help prevent further progression and maintain oral health.

3: How can I prevent periodontal disease?
Periodontal disease can be prevented by practicing good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly, using antibacterial mouthwash, and attending regular dental check-ups.

4: Is periodontal disease hereditary?
Genetic factors can make an individual more susceptible to periodontal disease. However, it is not solely determined by genetics, and maintaining proper oral hygiene significantly reduces the risk.

5: Can pregnancy affect periodontal health?
Yes, hormonal changes during pregnancy can increase the risk of developing or worsening periodontal disease. It is crucial for pregnant women to maintain good oral hygiene and seek professional dental care.


Periodontal disease is a prevalent oral health issue that requires timely intervention to prevent tooth loss and maintain overall oral health. By understanding its causes, symptoms, and treatment options, individuals can take preventive measures and seek early treatment if needed. Remember, maintaining good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups play a vital role in managing and preventing periodontal disease.

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